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APA Citation Style, 6th edition: E-mail

A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 6th edition.

E-mail (p. 179)

E-mails are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Personal communication includes personal interviews, letters, phone calls, email or messages from nonarchived discussion groups.
 
General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day,
      Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day,
      Year)
 
      References:
      Not included.
  
Example
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (K. Johnson, personal communication, March 25, 2010)
 
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (K. Johnson, personal communication, March 25, 2010)
 
      References:
      Not included.

Subject Guide

Gisela Butera
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