Skip to main content

Harvard Citation Style: Multi-Media Formats

In This Guide...

Click on the links below for further information on referencing each material type



Reference Formats


    • No Authors
    • 1, 2 or More Authors
    • No Editors
    • 1, 2 or More Editors
    • Chapters in Books

    Company Information

    • Company Reports
    • Company Profiles

    Conference Proceedings

    • Print
    • Online


    • Websites
    • Blogs
    • Web Images
    • Web Documents
    • Computer Software

    Journal Articles

    • CMO Articles
    • Print
    • Online

    Lecture Notes

    Multimedia Formats

    • Audio-Visual Material

    Newspaper Articles

    • Print
    • Online

    Patents & Standards

    • Citing Patents: Examples
    • Citing Patents: Standards


    • Citing Theses: Examples

    All Examples

    • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference

    Citing Multimedia Formats

    • For audio-visual material there may be no author in which case the title and date can be provided in the in-text reference
    • Format details should be included
    • If the source is electronic, details of the online location and date of access should be included in your Reference List

    Citing Multimedia Formats: Examples

    Material Type

    In-Text Example

    Reference List Example

    Video (Effective performance appraisals 1994) Effective performance appraisals 1994, (video recording), Melbourne, Educational Media Australia.
    Television Programme (Crystal 1993) Crystal, L (executive producer) 1993, The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour (television broadcast) 11 October 1993, New York and Washington DC, Public Broadcasting Service.
    Audio Podcast (Van Nuys 2007) Van Nuys, D (producer) 2007, 'The anatomy of a lobotomist [Show 84]', Shrink Rap Radio (podcast). Available from: <>. [11 April 2007].
    Video Podcast (Kloft 2006) Kloft, M (producer/director) 2006, The Nuremberg trials (motion picture), in M.Sameuls (executive producer), American experience (podcast). Available from: <>. [4 March 2006].

    Music Track from an Album

    (Shocked 1992) Shocked, M 1992, 'Over the waterfall', on Arkansas Traveller (CD). New York, Polygram Music.
    Video Blog Post (Norton 2006) Norton, R 2006, 'How to train a cat to operate a light switch' (video file). Available from: <>. [4 November 2006].

    The Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library
    Questions? Ask us.
    Creative Commons License
    All LibGuides by Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library are licensed under a
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

    The George Washington University