Skip to main content

Harvard Citation Style: All Examples

In-text citations

Two or more works cited at one point in the text

If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:

(Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999)

The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.

 

Two or three authors or authoring bodies

When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) 

In-Text & Reference List Examples

Books & eBooks

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Book: Single Author

(Holt 1997) or Holt (1997) wrote that...

Holt, DH 1997, Management principles and practices, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.
Book: 2 or 3 Authors (McCarthy, William & Pascale 1997) McCarthey, EJ, William, DP & Pascale, GQ 1997, Basic marketing, Irwin, Sydney.
Book: More Than 3 Authors (Bond et al. 1996) Bond, WR, Smith, JT, Brown, KL & George, M 1996, Management of small firms, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
Book: No Author (A history of Greece 1994) A history of Greece 1994, Irwin, Sydney.
Book: Editor (ed. Jones 1998) Jones, MD (ed.) 1998, Management in Australia, Academic Press, London.
Book: 2 or More Editors (eds Bullinger & Warnecke 1985) Bullinger, HJ & Warnecke HJ (eds) 1985, Toward the factory of the future, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Book: Translator & Author

(trans. Smith 2006)

Colorado, JA 2006, Economic theory in the Mexican context: recent developments on the ground, trans. K Smith, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Book: Organisation as Author (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics 2001) Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics 2001, Aquaculture development in Australia: a review of key economic issues, ABARE, Canberra.
Book: Chapter or Article in Edited Book A number of disturbing facts intrude' (Milkman 1998, p. 25) Milkman, R 1998, 'The new American workplace:high road or low road?' in Workplaces of the future, eds P Thompson & C Warhurst, Macmillan Press, London, pp. 22-34.
Book, edition other than first. (Drafke, 2009) Drafke, M 2009, The human side of organizations, 10th edn, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J
E-book (Aghion & Durlauf 2005) Aghion, P & Durlauf, S (eds.) 2005, Handbook of economic growth, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Available from: Elsevier books. [4 November 2004].
E-book: Chapter or Article in an Edited E-book 'Historical thinking is actually a Western perspective' (White 2002, p. 112) White, H 2002, 'The westernization of world history' in Western historical thinking: an intercultural debate, ed J Rusen, Berghahn Books, New York pp. 111-119. Available from: ACLS Humanities E-Book. [14 May 2009].
Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same Year (Bond 1991a) (Bond 1991b)

Bond, G 1991a, Business ethics, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

Bond, G 1991b, Corporate governance, Irwin, London.

Journal Articles

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Journal Article: Print (Conley & Galeson 1998) Conley, TG & Galeson, DW 1998, 'Nativity and wealth in mid-nineteenth century cities', Journal of Economic History, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 468-493.
Journal Article: Electronic Database (Liveris 2011) Liveris, A 2011, 'Ethics as a strategy', Leadership Excellence, vol. 28, no. 2, pp.17-18. Available from: Proquest [23 June 2011].

Internet/Websites

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Webpage: No Author

(Improve indigenous housing 2007)

Use first few words of the page title

Improve indigenous housing now, government told, 2007. Available from: http://www.architecture.com.au/i-cms?page=10220 . [8 February 2009].
Webpage: No Date (Jones, n.d.) Jones, MD n.d., Commentary on indigenous housing initiatives. Available from: <http://www.architecture.com.au>. [6 June 2009].
Web Document (Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources 2006) Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources 2006, Being Prepared for an Influenza Pandemic: a Kit for Small Businesses, Government of Australia, Available from: <http://www.innovation.gov.au>. [28 February 2009].
Website (Australian Securities Exchange 2009) Australian Securities Exchange 2009, Market Information. Available from: <http://www.asx.com.au/professionals/market_information/index.htm>. [5 July 2009].
Blog (Newton 2007) Newton, A. 2007, Newcastle toolkit. 16 January 2007. Angela Newton: Blog. Available from: <https://elgg.leeds.ac.uk/libajn/weblog/>. [23 February 2007].
Computer Software (OpenOffice.org 2005) OpenOffice.org, computer software 2005. Available from: <http://www.openoffice.org>. [11 January 2005].
Web Based Image / table / figure (The Lunar Interior 2000) The Lunar Interior, 2000. Available from: <http://www.planetscapes.com/solar/browse/moon/moonint.jpg>. [28 November 2000].

Company Information

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Company Report (Aspect Huntley 2009) Aspect Huntley DatAnalysis 2009, National Australia Bank Limited Company Report. Available from: Aspect Huntley DatAnalysis. [20 May 2009].
Company Profile (Datamonitor 2009) Datamonitor 2009, Wesfarmers Limited Company Profile. Available from: Business Source Premier. [20 May 2009].
Financial Data (Datastream 2009) Datastream, 2009, S&PASX200 daily index data 2000-2009. Available from: Datastream. [20 May 2009].

Conference Papers & Proceedings

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Conference Proceeding Paper: Print (Riley 1992) Riley, D 1992, 'Industrial relations in Australian education', in Contemporary Australasian industrial relations: proceedings of the sixth AIRAANZ conference, ed. D. Blackmur, AIRAANZ, Sydney, pp. 124-140.
Conference Proceeding Paper: Electronic (Fan, Gordon & Pathak 2000) Fan, W, Gordon, MD & Pathak, R 2000, 'Personalization of search engine services for effective retrieval and knowledge management', Proceedings of the twenty-first international conference on information systems, pp. 20-34. Available from: ACM Portal: ACM Digital Library. [24 June 2004].
Conference Proceeding Paper: Unpublished (Brown & Caste 1990) Brown, S & Caste, V 2004, 'Integrated obstacle detection framework'. Paper presented at the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IEEE, Detroit MI.

Newspapers

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Newspaper: Print (Ionesco 2001) Ionesco, J 2001, 'Federal election: new Chip in politics', The Advertiser 23 October, p. 10.
Newspaper: Electronic Database (Meryment 2006) Meryment, E 2006, 'Distaff winemakers raise a glass of their own to their own', The Australian, 7 October, p. 5. Available from: Factiva. [2 February 2007].
Newspaper: From a Website (Hilts 1999) Hilts, PJ 1999, 'In forcasting their emotions, most people flunk out', The New York Times 16 February. Available from <http://www.nytimes.com>. [19 February 2000].
Newspaper: No Author (The Sydney Morning Herald 7 January 2011, p. 12) Not required.

Multimedia

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Video (Effective performance appraisals 1994) Effective performance appraisals 1994, (video recording), Melbourne, Educational Media Australia.
Television Programme (Crystal 1993) Crystal, L (executive producer) 1993, The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour (television broadcast) 11 October 1993, New York and Washington DC, Public Broadcasting Service.
Audio Podcast (Van Nuys 2007) Van Nuys, D (producer) 2007, 'The anatomy of a lobotomist [Show 84]', Shrink Rap Radio (podcast). Available from: <http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/>. [11 April 2007].
Video Podcast (Kloft 2006) Kloft, M (producer/director) 2006, The Nuremberg trials (motion picture), in M.Sameuls (executive producer), American experience (podcast). Available from: <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rss/podcast_pb.xml>. [4 March 2006].

Music Track from an Album

(Shocked 1992) Shocked, M 1992, 'Over the waterfall', on Arkansas Traveller (CD). New York, Polygram Music.
Video Blog Post (Norton 2006) Norton, R 2006, 'How to train a cat to operate a light switch' (video file). Available from: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs>. [4 November 2006].

Standards & Patents

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Patent (Cookson 1985) Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.
Standard: Retrieved From a Database (Standards Australia 2008) Standards Australia 2008, Personal floatation devices - General requirements. AS 4758.1-2008. Available from: Standards Australia Online. [1 December 2008].
Standard: Published (Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard 1994) Standards Australia 1994, Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications, AS/NZS 3951.10:1994, Standards Australia, NSW.

CMO

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

CMO Article (Jennings 1997) Jennings, P 1997, 'The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective', International Small Business Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 63-75. Available from: The University of Western Australia Library Course Materials Online. [1 September 2004].

Lecture Notes

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Lecture Notes (Foster 2004) Foster, T 2004, Balance sheets, lecture notes distributed in Financial Accounting 101 at The University of Western Australia, Crawley on 2 November 2005.

Theses

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Thesis: Unpublished (Hos 2005) Hos, JP 2005, Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes. Ph.D thesis, University of Western Australia.
Thesis: Published (May 2007) May, B 2007, A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud. Bristol UK, Canopus Publishing.
Thesis: Retrieved From a Database (Baril 2006) Baril, M 2006, A distributed conceptual model for stream salinity generation processes: a systematic data-based approach. WU2006.0058. Available from: Australasian Digital Theses Program. [12 August 2008].

Personal Communication

Material Type

In-Text Example

Telephone Call, Interview, e-mail, etc. If the information you are referencing was obtained by a personal communication such as a telephone call, an interview or an email that fact is usually documented in the text and are not added to the reference list. If desired you can add the abbreviation pers.comm. to the reference.
  • When interviewed on 6 June 2008, Mr M Ward confirmed...
  • Mr M Ward confirmed this by facsimile on 6 June 2008.
  • It has been confirmed that he will be touring Australia in the middle of next year (Mr M Ward, 2008, pers. comm., 6 June).

Citing Information Someone Else has Cited

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Citing Information that Someone Else has Cited (O'Reilly, cited in Byrne 2008) In the reference list provide the details of the author who has done the citing.

The Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library
Questions? Ask us.
Creative Commons License
All LibGuides by Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library are licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

The George Washington University